Tuesday, April 2, 2019
An Approach Of Scientific And Non Scientific Knowledge Philosophy Essay
An antenna Of scientific And Non scientific cognition Philosophy EssayThe main object of this paper is that the variation between scientific and Non -scientific Knowledge and Examine the limit is in that respect between these two. In dodgeicalness to prove whole these things, we look at to start from the canonical. So we start with comment , The Word perception comes from the Latin word scientia known as fellowship .According to Websters New Collegiate Dictionary, the definition of perception is cognition attained finished postulate or pr coiffeice, or fellowship covering general truths of the operation of general laws, esp. as obtained and tried and true through scientific method and concerned with the physical world.1. Science refers to a placement of acquiring noesis. This system uses observation and experimentation to describe and pardon intrinsic phenomena. So, it is very difficult to render a definite conclusion, to get by Science from non Science.scie ntific Knowledge-The scientific fellowship is process of conclusion the actual familiarity through experiment and observation. It is pellucid and rational locomote by through which scientists come to conclusion. Scientist use observation, hypotheses, guess, laws and deduction to possess these conclusions. graduation exercise learn the essential element of comprehension by method of analysis. peculiar(prenominal) of scientific familiarity lies on three factors objective, logical and systematic. It is transformation of deductive logic to assumption, then hypothesis to theory and theory to laws. These can bring home the bacon by learning from basic creation through assumption, variable, parameters and function forms 2. scientific hypotheses and theory atomic figure of speech 18 tested and verified by former(a) Scientists, so that I can be recognised by the scientific community.Non scientific Knowledge-Non scientific Knowledge is accessed via senses, intuition, revelat ion and experience. We know that, moving keep give away to the fire will get hurt and burned. So, he or she gains the cognition by physical sense seeing, sound, touch, smell and experience .Other gain companionship by intuition and revelation. Intuition is the punishing feeling or roll in the hay and Revelation is supernatural source, such as god, divinity etc. cognition obtained through experience, intuition, revelations argon treated as private noesis. Objective exam is not conducted on Non scientific methods. Non Scientific knowledge h former(a), that the world cannot be understood by science, but rather by religious revelations, mystical experience, or literarydeconstructionism 3.Why we believe scientific knowledge rather than Non Scientific Knowledge?Scientific experiment can be repeated several times to prove the extends argon decry in whole the cases of observation carried out. Scientific method uses method of trial and error. running and error is equivalent to sc ientific methods, Scientist use more details right smart of understanding of problem .Whereas in case of non scientific method, it is just prophecy or forecasting the event with the help of hunch or strong feeling. This wont give the same(p) result completely the time. tho there is no perfect difference between two scientific and non Scientific(Barrow,1991) For Ex ample, auto mechanic use his hunch to solve the problem arise in Car, but scientist solve same problem with details examination and causes for the problem. sometimes Car mechanic can solve the problem so primitively than Scientist. From this, we cant predict scientific knowledge of no use.In order to prove this, Gallup Poll conducted survey in March 2001 among Americans, in proceeds -Creationism and evolution. In that survey nearly 57 % for Creationism, 33% for evolution and 10% atomic number 18 not sure close to the problem (Gallup News Service, 2001). This shows the wherefore scientific knowledge is credible? .first Unit covers, Science epistemological time value and exploitation of new Science.Best example is Physical Science, show wherefore scientific knowledge is more credible and reliable knowledge than Non scientific knowledge. According to Lakatos, No scientific theories or hypothesis should be accepted without suitable verification from other Scientist and Scientist community. Sir Isaac Newton who is the Father of Physics, so good deal had blind faith on him. Newton published the final sport of his theory Opticks in 1704.Everyone accepted it without any reference and practical experiments (example for non Scientific knowledge). homogeneous time, Christiaan Huygens proposed light was do of luminous particles called as ether .This made people to go against him, since his theory is against Newtons theory of Opticks. After Several years, Christiann Huygens theory was proved correct by Mr. Max Plancks Quantum theory and Albert Einsteins Theory of theory of relativity throug h various experiment and observation 5.How can we recognize the correct knowledge?By studying the history of the universe, it is possible to understand the natural hierarchical standard of the nature of organization (Bronowski, 1977). These directs are classified by stability, size and in built properties. These levels are made up of quantum, atomic and molecules of the universe (Silk, 2001). This Hierarchy, show the framework and Characteristics for all scientific knowledge.Some of the characteristics areThere is temporal relation between these levels for development of the universe.Steady and durable process, to built these level from the basicCourse of time is required for the development of the level and their hierarchy.Universe attach to the natural algorithm of evolution (Dennett, 1995), for achieving these level of stability in all process and hierarchy.Using this knowledge, every concept of non major Science can be covered, by building a logical way of discussing the fac tor on itself. Best example is biologic evolution and modern synthesis (Darwin and Mendel).According to Kuhn, science is divided into basal science and normal science. Normal Science is the collection of facts and it obeys all scientific rules and characteristics. Whereas, revolutionary science is overthrow the existing theory and make science in better way. In the beginning of 18th century Darwins institution of Evolution was considered as revolutionary science. It predicts human race originates from Apes. His theory disobeys all the scientific characteristics and rules. So, no one at that time believed and accepted his theory. But now modern science has various proofs that, Darwin theory is right. 4How can we flux the knowledge into one?It is very difficult to accumulate and integrate the knowledge from the source of either Scientific or non scientific methods. Both Science and non Science play a vital post in Knowledge management. By bring the subject to real world and make a relation with the fact came from the experiment, observation and proposed laws to make it as whole one. steps involved in Integration (Mackinson and Nttestad 1998).Gather the required learning from the both scientific (Hard info) and non Scientific methods (practical info).Combine these data with the help of proper communication in all level (analysis, design and implementation)1. Accurate at heart the domain2. Increase the existing knowledge3. Simple objective4. see the difference in opinion5. Stiff in opinion is unendingly wrongUnderstand the complete problem as whole one. intercourse of Parts and Unity of KnowledgeBy gathering all the fundamental demand, assumptions and laws (scientific knowledge), we can provide exempt the conceptual way of any system as the basis of any non scientific terms, methods or knowledge. Epistemology is study of origin, methods and down the stairs the human knowledge. Coherence is epistemological term, in which Science has a logical connecti on between the theoretical and practical way of handling the methods, tip to cause and effect. Dividing Science into different disciplines, as the need for methodology and specialness (Greene, 1997). But this is not happened in real world. In reality, scientific knowledge is completely one. This allows the individual to make specialize. Unity of knowledge is known as characteristic of scientific theory, which a gel of various area of study (Wilson, 1998). Example for unity of knowledge is mechanics in physics, salmagundi of shaft and their evolution in biology, Historic events etc. Unity of knowledge is a fruit for scientific analysis and built a more ample environment to form a coherent picture of the world.When Non Scientific start Scientific?Non Scientific manner is analysis of problem with hunch or inductive or past experience. Truth in non scientific method is not examined, because results are not accurate or mere coincidence. Non Scientific method should follow some st eps to reach as Scientific Knowledge. They areGoal What is to be done?Model How it is done?Data What are requirements?Evaluation what is the output?Revision how to improve?For Example readying is the best example for Conversion of Non Scientific into Scientific terms. Microwave oven reduces almost of our work, but however preparation of dishes begins with list of ingredients, recipe and instruction, mixing and cooking them. Even though all these things are perfect, well talented chef is required, to follow the recipe, modify the judgment by adding ingredient according to the output (requirement of taste of the people). Modification are carried still, it meets the chefs approval. Any significant counter sort in the recipe may be taken as permanent change and make it as food type itself in the nearby future.Scientific rule Template for CookingGOALTo prepare a dish precedentRecipe -type of food item going to prepareDATAIngredients , vessels and other stuffsEVALUATIONHow it tast e?REVISIONModification according to the comments or requirementNot a Science-Day to Day life, people maintain many thing, they treat everything as science. There are some of things, are not considered as science. They are-Religion is not considered as science. nearly of the religions followed some limited codes and methods, to make followers should obey to accept. There is no improvement in religion and no ways to measure it.Governments are established for some reason and inclination. They are also allow circuit of rules to reach the goal. It is rarely a formal function for calculating the goal they achieved.Technology and Science are cor connect. Science is used to develop the engine room and technology is tool or application, developed from the knowledge of science.Astrology predictions are virtual. There is goal and model s, but criteria like evaluation, Data and revisal are absent. social organization of Scientific Knowledge-So Far, we have argued about the belief of scie ntific knowledge as a final conclusion, for coherent theories to growth and development. Scientific Knowledge is divided into Internal and External resource, which is unexpressed and explicit, explanation and concept of environment. The complexity of the problem, help us to deal with knowledge not based on the algorithm, but through set of rules to explain the splendor and practices. These types of issues can celestial horizon as first order staff view.According to Scott Atran and Dan Sperber, classify knowledge faculty asa genetically specified computational device in the mind/brain that whole kit and caboodle pretty much on its own on inputs pertaining to some specific cognitive domain and provided by other parts of the nervous system (e.g. sensory receptors or other modules) (Sperber 1996, p. 120)The main motto of his postulate is, knowledge modules are providing the access to proper information in correct domain. The Structure is not standardizing, explicitly understanding of the fundamental principles for sensing or think in the particular domain (Carey 1995, p. 274). According to Susan Carey, These knowledge modules are considered as empirical and conceptual problem. The empirical problems relate on the data related to different catholicity. So, these data wont provide evidence for making solve decision. But these data help us to understand the fundamental and basic reasoning for characterize (Carey 1985).example for first order module view is classification of the flora and fauna. They are not domain specific. However the knowledge module is considered as the core domain knowledge.Scientific development through digest knowledge-According to Carey and Spelke put forward-Processes for combining the representations from domain-specific systems of knowledge provide one potential mechanism of theory development and conceptual change studies of young children provide a promising means to study these processes (Carey and Spelke 1996, p. 528) lift kno wledge can be obtained from conceptual change. But scientific knowledge is termed as Theoretical knowledge. Results of the observation are converted into theories, which are imitation as right (true). If terms of false result, scientific knowledge is drift the new one, by adding additional valid information in old theories. The change in theories is always good for the growth of the knowledge module in Scientific methods. But now days, sociologist claims, Science is elaborated field, in order to gain the scientific knowledge it is necessary to take cultural and social events as consideration (Biagoli 1993, Shapin and Schaffer 1985).Boundary between Scientific and Non Scientific knowledge-Whether there is bourn between scientific and non scientific knowledge? In order to examine this, there are several factors and importance we need to notice, some of them areAccepting the wrong conclusion, so that look for is made to find the actual truth (knowledge).Boundary between Scientific and non Scientific is not imaginary, all research either lies on Scientific or non scientificKnowledge is based on the Science, naturally boundary will exist.Boundary is best indicator to explain the characteristic of any research work or fields. Factors involved along with scientific and non Scientific method, explain the characteristic of the research.To define the classical logic and standards, boundary is required. sneak in applying Scientific methodsScientist used the hypothesis to explain the phenomenon of any events or research, without finding or conducting experimental tests. We cannot prove the hypothesis, by conducting single experiment. If result obtained from the original hypothesis is differing from final result of the experiment, hypothesis wont change due to result difference. These factors relates on variable control, time, measurement, etc.Removing of unwanted data from the hypothesis is always a great geological fault. Scientist always has strong belief, that th eir hypothesis is right. So it is human tendency, to change the data if results are against the hypothesis. Calculation of estimating the type, priority, number and classification of errors also lead to one mistake in knowledge gathering in scientific methods.Communication plays a vital role in development and sharing of Knowledge. Miscommunication, community override , personal or group bias are avoided , since experiments , test and research are carried out by different people from different culture , language, thoughts ,opinion etc. so there is always possibility for conflict and other human errors and mistake ( Wilson,1952).Summary-If only theory and practice worked on the same lines, everything I read in the books wouldve been trueThe scientific methods are closely related with science, which solve the human queries that penetrate the all level of knowledge management. Method are simpler and logic way of understanding the problem. In introduction, we distinguish science and its methods from all other forms of non scientific methods. Scientific method is examine through various step like observation ,prediction , hypothesis and experimentation , with all view of the philosopher like cloud, Spelke, Wilson ,Kuhn etc in each phase . In foothold of Non scientific methods, we discuss about the how it differs from traditional way (scientific methods)? , when Non scientific act become scientific one? . In later portion, boundary and difference between scientific and non scientific methods and knowledge, mistake committed by the scientist patch during the hypothesis and other phase of analysis and experiment are discussed. For yet details of this topic and other aspect may be institute in reference listed below.ConclusionAll religions, arts and sciences are branches of the same tree Albert Einstein 23We have discussed about the growth of scientific knowledge, with all traditional practices, concepts, evolution of theories and other knowledge resource. The Sci entific method view is play vital role in developing the standard and concept. Same way Non scientific methods and knowledge also lead to enrich our idea, since this only converted into scientific knowledge, by adding some favor like goal, evaluation, data etc. Both type of knowledge help us in conversion and development of conceptual system. Conceptual system is rich in cognitive knowledge development. This only required by the people or scholar to enrich society, community or individual.